From this article, you can find out what role sewer pipes play for outdoor sewage in arranging communication systems. The text details the recommendations for the design and construction of a water supply system, a block system for cable laying, and storm sewers designed for collecting rainwater. In addition, the article covers the organization of outdoor sewage for wastewater and heating systems.
Basic information on the installation of heating, water supply, sewerage
Availability of communications provides the comfort of living in a private or country house. Modern man can not do without these amenities. If the lack of Internet, security and fire alarm systems, intercom can be reconciled, then without the installation of heating systems, water supply, sewerage is impossible.
The heating system is aimed at maintaining the optimum temperature in the room and creating comfortable conditions for a person to stay in a room without outerwear. Recommended temperature parameters are in the range from 18 to 23 ° C.
The scheme of the heating system includes the following components:
- heat source represented as a centralized system (apartment) or an autonomous boiler (private house);
- heating radiators are structures transmitting heat from the water inside the system to the surrounding space;
- pipe line – combines all elements of the heating system (partially ensures the transfer of heat from the carrier to the air space of the room).
Installation of this system, as well as other communications, is carried out at the construction stage of the building. However, at the request of the owner of the housing scheme can be redone with the aim of improvement. Of course, such a transition is expensive, but the construction of an autonomous system largely justifies itself.
Helpful advice! For a country or private house, radiatorless heating can be used. The system of water, infrared, cable or air floors will support optimal climatic conditions in the house, as well as allow you to achieve significant savings.
The plumbing system transports water to the points of consumption, namely, plumbing fixtures. In turn, the sewage system ensures the discharge of waste fluid outside the building. Both of these systems provide the comfort of living.
The classification of plumbing systems according to the method of organization is as follows:
- the outer part settles along the walls of the building;
- the inner segment is laid inside the walls, where the strokes are made specifically for this, after which the communications are hidden under a layer of plaster.
In addition, the plumbing system is classified according to the type of materials used for construction:
- based on steel products;
The main line supplies not only cold, but also hot water to the residential building, so the pipes must meet certain temperature requirements.
The main objective of the sewage system is the removal of human waste products, which may be in a semi-liquid or liquid state. Subsequently, drains are cleaned and returned to natural reservoirs.
Sewerage according to the method of execution is divided into the following types:
- facilities with a cleansing function.
It is impossible to imagine comfort without the construction of external water supply and sewage networks, as well as the heating system, so their proper design and organization are the most important issues when arranging a house or apartment.
In order to properly design a water supply system, it is necessary to take into account the possibility of connecting to a centralized water supply system. If this possibility is absent, the problem is solved with the help of construction on the well site. The decision is made on the basis of geological assessment of the territory. Drilling of a well for laying of the external sewerage of independent type is allowed.
In addition, other calculations will be required, for example, the volume of daily water consumption. From this parameter depends on the mode of operation and system load. Based on these data, a certain size of the pipe section and the corresponding equipment are selected. For these purposes, you will need a plan of the site and residential building, where all points of water consumption will be displayed, as well as the flow rate for each of them.
Important! Selecting the depth of laying the pipeline, you should consider the level of soil freezing. As an alternative, you can use the insulation of sewer pipes of external sewage using a heating cable.
Next, the layout is applied to the marking of pipeline lines for the transport of hot and cold water, the type of connection is selected, which can be sequential or collector.
In conclusion, the plan includes all the nodal components of the system:
The diagram should also indicate equipment that performs heating, cleaning or pumping water.
Drafting a project for laying sewers under the foundation and inside the building is carried out in a similar way. In this case, attention is paid to the end point of the discharge in the form of autonomous treatment equipment or a central riser, installation sites for plumbing and water consumption devices.
To collect wastewater, elements with a cross-section of 50 mm are laid in the system design. For internal risers and outlets of waste liquid from toilet bowls, elements similar in size to external ones — sewer pipes 110 mm — are most often used.
It is necessary to equip the system with audit elements, both in the building itself and on the external highway. According to construction technology, such wells are recommended to be placed on straight sections of the pipeline that are longer than 15 m. The same elements need zones where the line turns. For the construction of the system, fittings and other parts of an additional type are used, which allow to put together the sewage system.
For systems within which water moves by gravity, there are certain installation rules. According to the requirements of SNiP, the slope of the external sewage system by 1 meter, depending on the distance of the collector, can vary within 5-15 cm.
Important! It is not recommended to exceed the incline mark of 15 cm per 1 m of the pipeline, since the system will cease to function normally. The same result will be with insufficient inclination.
In cases where the pipeline pipeline under the project runs in areas where digging is impossible, a puncture is made in the ground.
Various tools are suitable for these purposes, many of which can be found in any household:
- scrap, etc.
If large-scale construction is expected under roads and in other difficult areas, special equipment is used to perform punctures. Some projects allow intersections between the sewer and water mains. In such cases, the installation of metal sleeves is performed at the points where the pipes intersect. The size of this element is selected based on the type of soil on the site. For chernozem and clay soil, sleeves with a length of 5 m are suitable. For sandy soil, it is recommended to take elements 10 m long in each direction from the point where the pipeline intersects.
At the points of intersection of highways, the installation of the water supply system should be carried out about 40 cm above the sewage level. If the pipes are parallel, the minimum distance between them is 1.5 m. In this case, it is also recommended to install a water supply system 40 cm higher than the sewage system . Requirements are also being put forward to the area for entering communications into a residential area. Between the water supply and sewage system or gas pipeline should be at least 1.5 m.
For the installation of any of these systems, it will be necessary to carry out excavation work in accordance with the project, forming trenches for pipe laying. The outer section of the water supply should connect the water source, where it is dialed, and the entry point of the highway into the building. The optimal trench depth is within 1.5-2.5 m. From the level of soil freezing it is necessary to deepen the pipeline by not less than 0.5 m. At the bottom a sand-gravel pad is formed, after which it is tamped, and in areas where to settle pipe connections it is necessary to dig out sumps.
Note! Sizes of sewage pipes for outdoor sewage are selected based on the volume of water consumption and the length of the pipeline. It is recommended to select the diameter of the elements with a margin.
The optimal size of the cross section of water pipes:
|External line length, m||Recommended diameter, mm|
Type of connection of pipes depends on their material of manufacture For the installation of a plumbing system, soldering, welding, pipe coupling, etc. are used. If there is a need to install valves, a viewing well is formed at the site of its installation.
To lay the sewers, dig a flat trench between the system entry area and the cesspool. The pipes should lie 50 cm deeper than the level of soil freezing. If the scheme provides for turns of the highway, then in these places it is necessary to install inspection wells. To do this, a hole is dug out and a sand cushion 10 cm thick is formed at its bottom. If the sewer pipeline is large, the inspection wells are installed in 10-12 m steps.
For the installation of sewage systems, PVC products and cast-iron pipes are most often used. To drain drains from the bathroom and the sink, a pipe with a cross-section of 50 mm will suffice. For sanitary devices, for example, a toilet is better to take products with a diameter of 110-160 mm.
The choice of pipes for the installation of sewage and plumbing systems is based on various parameters, including safety, degree of durability and reliability, recommended operating conditions and cost.
For water supply the following types of products are used:
- plastic pipes based on polymers (polypropylene, PVC, NPVH, etc.);
- metal-plastic elements with thin-layer reinforcement with metal enclosed on both sides in a plastic sheath;
- metal pipes (copper, steel).
For products designed for the arrangement of sewage, put forward similar requirements. In addition, pipes must be resistant to aggressive media.
For sewage used the following types of products:
- polymer-based plastic pipes (PVC);
- cast iron elements;
- ceramic pipes;
- products made of asbestos cement.
Polymer products perfectly manifest themselves during operation, so in most cases these types of pipes are used for such work.
Helpful advice! Plastic has low sound insulation. To ensure the comfort of operation, it is recommended to wrap products in the process of installing pipes for external sewage in soundproof material.
PVC pipes are widely used for the organization of communication systems, as well as the restoration of existing highways. Products are suitable for moving any waste. They are suitable as convenient and practical pipes for draining water from the roof and the subsequent transportation of rain drains, as well as waste liquid from industrial and household objects.
The first stage is equipped with a chute for collecting water and installing drain pipes for the roof. After that, you can organize a linear or point sewer system. On sale you can find all the elements for the construction of stormwater. In addition to standard parts may require sand traps, siphons, plugs.
The presence of storm, cable and household sewage, as well as plumbing and heating systems is the key to the comfort of living in the house. To avoid unpleasant consequences when installing these communications with your own hands is possible only in one way – by choosing the right materials, and having exactly carried out the calculations.