All those who build a two-story private house, faced with the need to choose the option of stairs. There are very strict requirements for home stairs: they must be comfortable, reliable and fit perfectly into the interior of the room. Wooden stairs in a private house completely satisfy these parameters: projects, photo variants and basic characteristics should be studied in detail before installation.
Wooden stairs in a private house: projects, photo options
In modern construction for the construction of stairs use a variety of materials:
- glass in combination with a metal frame;
- a tree with a metal base;
- a rock;
All of them are fairly reliable, durable and, with proper processing, have a beautiful, presentable appearance. Projects of wooden stairs in a private house, the photo of which shows all their attractiveness, besides this also have a relatively low cost estimate.
All the stairs in the house are divided into main and auxiliary. The first serve as a portal between floors, and the second lead to the basement or the attic. According to the march structure, there are several main projects of wooden stairs in a private house. Photos of such designs attracts with its elegance. Here are some basic options with straight marches:
- ladders having straight marches. This design has gained the most extensive distribution, as it has simplicity in execution. If the floor space does not allow, then make two or three ladders with an interfloor area between them. Since it is easiest to make the correct biomechanical calculation of such a design, the ascent and descent of such a ladder is very convenient;
- L-shaped designs of flight of stairs are quite common, since they have the necessary compactness. Such a ladder is installed near two or one wall and has several front steps at the turning point. These steps are made in the form of triangles with an acute angle, so there are some inconveniences when moving in such areas. However, among the projects of wooden stairs in a private house, a photo of such structures takes a worthy place;
- U-shaped stairs are installed in special interfloor mines or bay windows. The rotation in them is the same as in the L-shaped ones, but it turns out to be double;
- T-shaped structures are constructed in large and rich mansions, since their construction requires a lot of space. They have a corresponding value. Arranged this staircase of three marches. One leads from the first floor to the interfloor area, and two from it to the second floor.
Due to the small complexity of the calculation and construction, the construction of a wooden staircase to the second floor can be done by hand and not by a professional.
The construction of the simplest rectilinear wooden staircase involves the installation of several basic elements:
- two sides, which are called bowstrings. They are absolutely identical massive boards in which right-angled triangles under steps are chosen. These elements are the carrier base, so they must have sufficient strength and reliability;
- steps, which are planks about 250 mm. in width and 40 mm. thick They are inserted into the grooves of the sidewalls;
- risers – optional element. Boards mounted on the edge between the upper and lower steps, covering the space under the steps;
- railing – a device for easy descent and ascent. Constructed for safety and design. Some types of stairs may be missing;
- interfloor ground, which serves to reduce the area occupied by the building while maintaining the normal angle of inclination of the steps.
The process of making wooden stairs to the second floor can be done by hand in the following order:
- construction of the interfloor site. In the simplest version, it is a very large stool with four legs and a platform on top. First, a frame is made with stiffeners of the required dimensions. Attached to it legs of the desired height. The whole structure is put in its place and temporary flooring is put on it in order not to damage the main boards during the construction process;
- then the bowstrings are made from the template and fasten them together in steps. The ends of the sides are cut at the right angle and put the entire span to the site. The second similar span is established between the platform and the second floor. The whole structure is firmly fastened together and attached to the wall;
- attaching balusters and mounting railings. These items cannot be made without special carpentry tools, so you can buy them in the store.
Helpful advice! You can varnish the product. Under it is desirable to apply the stain with the desired shade. The only disadvantage of such a coating is the need for complete cleaning from varnish during subsequent repairs.
It’s not difficult to build a staircase using a pre-made template, but in order to make it, you need to make a competent and optimal calculation of a wooden staircase to the second floor.
For the device convenient and functional stairs, it is necessary to make a competent calculation of its basic parameters. The most important indicator here is the angle of inclination. It depends on the convenience of ascent and descent.
Helpful advice! Too steep stairs uncomfortable, and too flat takes a lot of space. The optimal range of angles is between 23 and 37 degrees.
The width of the steps should allow two people to freely disperse on them. It is most convenient when it is 1.2–1.5 m. The height of each step should not exceed 180–200 mm. Therefore, for lifting, for example, to a height of 2.7 m, you need to make 15 steps. Based on the fact that the width of one step is 250 mm, we get 3750 mm, the projection on the floor.
Now, using the Pythagorean theorem (H? + D? = L ?, where H is the height, D is the projection length on the floor, L is the desired length of the stairs), we calculate the length of the march. In our example, it is 4620 mm. As you can see, it is quite large, so more often the stairs are made with a platform between the floors. In this case, the calculations of the wooden stairs to the second floor must be made separately for each march. This staircase will take half the area.
Particularly elegant look stairs to the second floor, having curved marches. Highly skilled designers and craftsmen are engaged in their creation, since this process is rather complicated. Among curvilinear designs stand out:
- Circular structures with one center of symmetry.
- Local, requiring the skills of three-dimensional design. They may have two or more centers.
The most known option from all curvilinear designs is the spiral staircase. Do it yourself it is quite possible to arrange such a structure if certain requirements are met.
Spiral or spiral staircases come in three forms:
- With one stand in the middle, on which the steps are mounted.
- With one stand and a bowstring in the form of a spiral.
- With two spiral bearing bowstrings.
The easiest way is to build a spiral staircase of the first type. For this, a floor to ceiling pipe is installed. Stairs that have the shape of an acute triangle in a spiral are put on it. Their number must be calculated based on the convenience of lifting. For such stairs, special rounded rails are used.
Helpful advice! If the spiral staircase is the only one in the house, then it is necessary to raise the furniture beforehand, since it will be almost impossible to make it along such a staircase.
Secondary stairs do not require any special decoration, so everyone can make them. An example would be a folding staircase to the attic. Installation of this design is not a big deal. A conventional staircase consisting of two or three folding segments is mounted on the inside of the attic hatch. When you open this hatch, a folding staircase to the attic is cracked. This design allows you to hide not decorated elements of the stairs in the attic.
Whatever type of staircase is chosen, as long as it is comfortable, safe and blends in well with the interior of the house.