Properly designed and built foundation is the key to durable and safe operation of any building and structure. There is a certain number of types of basement, but the most popular of all will undoubtedly be tape. For its manufacture does not require additional equipment. Everyone is able to build a strip foundation with his own hands: a step-by-step instruction on its construction will help in this matter.
Advantages and disadvantages of the tape type foundation
It received its name, as it has the appearance of a reinforced concrete tape, buried in the ground. The outer and inner walls of the structure with their entire bottom plane rest on the surface of this tape. According to the type of penetration into the earth, the tape type of the foundation is deepened (from 1.45 to 1.65 m) and with a shallow depth (less than 1.4 m). The first type is being built for large buildings and multi-storey buildings, and the second for low-rise construction. By structure, it can be monolithic and prefabricated. Monolithic is poured from a concrete solution, and the prefabricated is made of separate reinforced concrete blocks.
The following materials can be used for the construction of a monolithic foundation:
- Portland cement;
- fragmentation rock;
- broken brick;
- steel reinforcement;
The need for these materials can be pre-calculated using a calculator for calculating concrete on a strip foundation or manually.
The tape base has a number of advantages that make it truly popular among all other types of bases:
- weak susceptibility to heavy loads;
- simple erection without the use of heavy technical means;
- structural reliability;
- the possibility of building on soils of heterogeneous density;
- walls of the structure can simultaneously serve as walls in the basement of the house.
He also has disadvantages:
- for building you need a lot of materials;
- waterproofing is required.
With all its advantages and disadvantages, this type of foundation is widespread, especially in private construction.
Helpful advice! In order to calculate the right amount of mortar, calculators for calculating concrete on a strip foundation have long been invented. It is enough to enter the parameters of the trench in them in order to obtain complete information on the amount of materials required. With these services, you can also calculate the cost of the foundation.
Due to the fact that there is no need to use heavy technical equipment for construction, anyone can build a strip foundation with their own hands: a step-by-step instruction on how to carry out the work includes several independent steps.
Before proceeding to the construction of the foundation, it is necessary to make the layout of the area and marking of the axes. Under the plan refers to the alignment of the entire construction site height. If the height difference on the site is significant, then this circumstance should be taken into account when digging a trench. It will be necessary to dig in higher places more deeply, but in lower places the height of the foundation will be greater.
The axes are marked using a triangle with sides of 3: 4: 5. The corners should be straight and all the diagonals equal.
This is digging a trench to the required depth along the marking axes. Its depth depends on the density of the soil, the distance to the groundwater, the weight of the building being erected. For multi-storey buildings – this is 1.5 m, and for private houses, 1 m is sufficient if the ground allows. After finishing the digging of the trench, tamping and drainage is carried out at its bottom with a layer of sand and rubble. This is called a pillow. The width of the trench depends on the type of materials from which the walls will be made. For private houses 60 cm is enough.
When the trench is ready, begin to construct the formwork. Some construction firms have in their arsenal team reusable formwork, which is very convenient to use. Do-it-yourself formwork for strip foundations can also be made. This will require lumber: bars and tes. Its quantity must be calculated individually.
The formwork has the appearance of a wooden box installed over the entire trench. Since there will be poured liquid solution, it must be kept tight. If this can not be achieved only with the help of boards, then you can sheathe the formwork inside with roofing felt. The structure must be rigid enough to withstand the pressure of the poured concrete. For this, formwork walls are fastened together with bridges over 2 to 3 meters. As you can see, the creation of formwork for the strip foundation with your own hands is not so difficult.
Helpful advice! In order for the lumber used in the manufacture of formwork to be reused, you need to design it so that when disassembling it does not damage the boards.
Before you start pouring a monolith, you need to ask yourself: what brand of concrete for strip foundation is the most optimal. This parameter depends on several factors:
- weight of the entire structure;
- the presence of additional loads on the base;
- what reinforcement is used;
- soil type;
- climatic conditions of the area.
For the device of a concrete pillow under the main base brand M100 will be quite enough. Under light designs: panel houses, baths and outbuildings fit M200. The construction of a wooden house or a structure of light blocks requires the use of the brand M250. For massive structures and buildings, high-quality concrete M350 is prepared, with a strength of 327 kg / cm ?. Higher grades of concrete are used for the construction of geometrically complex structures and on construction sites in regions with a harsh climate. Knowing these characteristics, everyone can determine for himself: what brand of concrete is necessary for strip foundations.
Having defined the brand of concrete, you need to prepare everything you need to fill. Some order ready-made concrete from specialized firms. Most people prepare their own solution. For this, it is desirable to have a concrete mixer. It mixes all the ingredients. Their proportion depends on which brand of concrete for the strip foundation was selected.
At the bottom of the trench along the entire perimeter there is a steel structure welded from reinforcement rods. The more such rods are used and the thicker they are, the stronger the foundation will be.
The prepared concrete is poured into the trench and formwork to the level mark and leveled, so that its surface is strictly horizontal and even.
Helpful advice! When pouring high volume foundations, it is necessary to use special vibrators that are buried in the thickness of the concrete. They expel air bubbles, making the monolith more uniform and durable.
After the foundation is fully prepared, it is necessary to provide waterproofing of its walls with coating materials. Properly executed foundation will provide long and reliable operation of any object.